What causes kidney stones?

Factors that could increase the potential risk of developing kidney stones include:

  • Your family history
  • Kidney stones are usually common in young adults who are above 25 years and even older people.
  • Men are more vulnerable to developing kidney stones when compared to women.
  • People who live in regions which have predominantly warm climates and those who are prone to excessive sweating are at a higher risk than others.
  • Consuming food rich in protein, sodium and sugar
  • Obesity
  • Gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel disease or chronic diarrhea can bring about changes in the digestive process, which could in turn affect the assimilation of calcium and water. This enhances the level of kidney stones in your urine.
  • Other medical conditions such as Renal tubular acidosis, Cystinuria, Hyperparathyroidism,
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Certain medications


What’s the best way to treat kidney stones?

The treatment of kidney stones basically depends upon its size, location and composition. Keeping your body hydrated and taking certain medicines can help a small stone pass easily. However, for problem stones, there are certain other treatment options:

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy or ESWL is a process that makes use of shock (sound) waves to break or disintegrate a large kidney stone into tiny fragments so that it can easily pass out of the body through the urine.

Ureteroscopic Stone Removal (URS) uses a small telescope with a laser to crush stones stuck in the ureters.

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL, PNL) is a endoscopic surgical procedure that is used to remove large stones from the kidneys.

Retrograde IntraRenal Surgery (RIRS) uses a flexible endoscope to enter the kidney through the urethra to crush stones or ablate tumors using a laser

Please discuss the various options with your urologist to determine which one is best for you.